(Lipidium Meyenii) Maca

1. Arch Latinoam Nutr, 50:126-33, 2000. Mice: Nutritional Value
2. Urology, 55:598-602, 2000. Mice/Rats: Enhanced the sexual function by an increase in the number of complete intromissions and the number of sperm-positive females in normal mice, and a decrease in the LPE in male rats with erectile dysfunction. Increases Energy. Aphrodisiac activity.
3. J Ethnopharmacol, 75:225-9, 2001. Male rats: Significantly improves sexual performance.
4. Andrologia, 34:177-9, 2002. Male Rat: Decreased intromission latency, intercopulatory interval; increased intromission frequency and copulatory efficacy.
5. Asian J Androl, 5:349-52, 2003. Male Rats: Activates onset and progression of spermatogenesis.
6. Asian J Androl, 3:231-3, 2001. Male rats: Increases sperm count and testicular weight.
7. Endocrinol, 180:87-95, 2004. Male Rat: Increased epididymal sperm count in a dose-dependent manner. At the highest dose, sperm count increased 1.58 times.
8. J Vet Med Sci, 65:1145-6, 2003. Mouse: Progesterone & Testosterone levels increased significantly.
9. J Nat Prod, 66:1101-3, 2003. Isolated 2 new imidazole alkaloids (lepidiline A and lepidiline B).
10. J Agric Food Chem, 50:5621-5, 2002. Maca constituents including benzylisothiocyanate.
11. Phytochemistry, 61:149-55, 2002. Isolated Constituent effective against termites.
12. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 50:988-91, 2002. Maca constituents and profile.
13. Phytochemistry, 59:105-10, 2002. Maca chemical constituents.
14. USPTO No. 6,093,421: Maca and antler for augmenting testosterone levels. 2000.
15. USPTO No. 6,267,995: Extract of Lepidium meyenii roots for pharmaceutical applications. 2001.
16. USPTO No. 6,428,824: Treatment of sexual dysfunction with an extract of Lepidium meyenii roots. 2002.
17. USPTO No. 6,444,237: Herbal composition for enhancing sexual response. 2002.
18. USPTO No. 6,552,206: Compositions and methods for their preparation from lepidium. 2003.
19. Asian J Androl, 3:301-3, 2001. Human Male: Increases seminal volume, sperm count per ejaculum, motile sperm count, and sperm motility without affecting serum hormone levels.
20. Reprod Biomed, 7:385-91, 2003. Human Male: Improves sperm morphology and concentration.
21. Altern Ther Health Med, 8:96-8, 2002. Increases energy and libido.
22. Andrologia, 34:367-72, 2002. Human Male: Improved sexual desire at 8 and 12 weeks of treatment w/o increasing serum testosterone and oestradiol levels.
23. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub, 147:119-30, 2003. Maca acts as a fertility enhancer, aphrodisiac, adaptogen, immunostimulant, anabolic and to influence hormonal balance.
24. Altern Med Rev, 9:4-16, 2004. Erectile dysfunction affects 50 percent of men ages 40-70 in the United States and is considered an important public health problem by the National Institutes of Health. There is evidence that Maca may be helpful for erectile dysfunction via improvements in penile endothelial L-arginine-nitric oxide activity.
25. J Endocrinol, 176:163-8, 2003. Human Male: Maca does not affect serum reproductive hormone levels.
26. J Amer Nutra Assoc, 5:34-40, 2001. Efficacy and Tolerance of an Ephedra-Free Nutraceutical Weight Management Product in an Asian Population.

(Croton Palanstigma) Dragon's Blood

1. J Pharm Sci, 68:124-6, 1979. Taspine isolation and anti-inflammatory activity.
2. Planta Med, 55:140-3, 1989. Taspine is the cicatrizant principle in Sangre de Grado extracted from Croton lechleri.
3. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 39:1041-2, 1991. A cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado.
4. J Nat Prod, 56:899-906, 1993. Isolation of a dihydrobenzofuran lignan from South American dragon's blood (Croton spp.) as an inhibitor of cell proliferation.
5. Planta Med, 60:541-5, 1994.Studies on the anti-tumour, anti-bacterial, and wound-healing properties of dragon's blood.
6. J Ethnopharmacol, 58:103-8, 1997. Effects of Sangre de Drago from Croton lechleri Muell.-Arg. on the production of active oxygen radicals.
7. Phytochemistry, 53:851-4, 2000. Synthesis of methyl dihydrohardwickiate and its C-4 epimer. Structural amendment of natural crolechinic acid.
8. USPTO No. 5,156,847: Wound-healing composition. 1992.
9. USPTO No. 5,474,782: Wound-healing composition and method. 1995.
10. USPTO No. 5,474,782: Wound-healing composition and method. 1995.
11. Phytochemistry, 38:1319-43, 1995. A matter of some sensitivity (Review).
12. USPTO No 5,211,944: Proanthocyanidin polymers having antiviral activity and methods of obtaining same. 1993.
13. Amer J Physiol, 279; G192-G200, 2000. Treatment of gastric ulcers and diarrhea with the amazonian medicinal, sangre de grado.
14. Amer Bot Council HerbClip, HC 032221 - 214, 2002. Sangre de Grado for Treatment of Gastric Ulcers.
15. Trends in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Therapy 1999,:Kluwer (New York), 2000. pp 201-206. Gut Inflammation: Is there a role for herbal medicines?
16. JANA, 5: 2-4, 2002. The impact of nutritional, bacterial and botanical approaches to gastrointestinal dysfunction.
17. J Ethnopharmacol, 80:121-9, 2002. Sangre de grado Croton palanostigma induces apoptosis in human gastrointestinal cancer cells.
18. Chron Skin Allergy, 7:4, 2001. Amazonian tree sap demonstrates anti-inflammatory properties.
19. J Invest Dermatol, 117:725-30, 2001. Inhibition of neurogenic inflammation by the Amazonian herbal medicine sangre de grado.
20. Itch: Basic Mechanisms and Therapy, Marcel Dekker, Ed. G. Yosipovitch: p311-320, 2003. Mechanistic and clinical assessment of Zangrado®, an extract of the Amazonian ethnomedicine sangre de grado, for the treatment of itch
21. Altern Med Rev, 6:567-79, 2001. Review of antiviral and immunomodulating properties of plants of the Peruvian rainforest with a particular emphasis on Una de Gato and Sangre de Grado.
22. J Nat Prod, 65:814-9, 2002. Geographic distribution of three alkaloid chemotypes of Croton lechleri.
23. Phytomedicine, 10:139-44, 2003. Evaluation of the mutagenic, antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of Croton lechleri (Muell. Arg.) latex.
24. Planta Med, 69:785-94, 2003. Immunomodulatory activity and chemical characterisation of sangre de drago (dragon's blood) from Croton lechleri.
25. J Altern Complement Med, 9:877-96, 2003. Review of sangre de drago (Croton lechleri) - a South American tree sap in the treatment of diarrhea, inflammation, insect bites, viral infections, and wounds: traditional uses to clinical research.
26. USPTO Application No. 20040067269: Methods & preparations of the latex from the croton species.
27. USPTO Application No. 20040067270: Pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of itch, nausea, hyperalgesia and the complications of opioid agonists.
28. USPTO Application No. 20040071793: Oral rehydration methods and compositions.

(Uncaria Tomentosa) Cat's Claw

1. J Pharm Pharmaco, 26: 113, 1974. Alkaloids from South American species of Uncaria (Rubiaceae).
2. Il. Farmaco. Ed. Sc, 31: 527-35, 1976.Alkaloids and procyanidins of an Uncaria sp. from Peru.
3. Nat Prod, 53:559-64, 1990.New polyhydroxylated triterpenes from Uncaria tomentosa.
4. Phytochemistry, 30:1635-7, 1991. Quinovic acid glycosides from Uncaria guianensis.
5. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 48):1410-2, 2000. A new gluco indole alkaloid, 3, 4-dehydro-5-carboxystrictosidine, from Peruvian Una de Gato (Uncaria tomentosa).
6. Acta Crystallogr: 57:480-2, 2001. Two stereoisomeric pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa: uncarine C and uncarine E.
7. J Nat Prod, 66:320-3, 2003.Two new nor-triterpene glycosides from peruvian "Una de Gato" (Uncaria tomentosa).
8. Planta Med, 65:759-60, 1999. Bioactive indole alkaloids from the bark of Uncaria guianensis.
9. Planta Med, 5:419-23, 1985. The alkaloids of Uncaria tomentosa and their phagocytosis-stimulating action
10. J Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper, 65517-20, 1989. [Phytochemical and biological study of Uncaria tomentosa].
11. Treatmentupdate, 11:1-2, 1999. English, French. Cat's claw scratching away at the immune system?
12. J Nat Prod, 54:453-9, 1991. Plant metabolites. New compounds and anti-inflammatory activity of Uncaria tomentosa.
13. J Rheumatol, 29:678-81, 2002. Randomized double blind trial of an extract from the pentacyclic alkaloid-chemotype of uncaria tomentosa for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
14. J Ethnopharmacol, 81:271-6, 2002. Anti-inflammatory activity of two different extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae).
15. Anticancer Res, 18:3363-8, 1998. Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in human tumor cells treated with extracts of Uncaria tomentosa.
16. J Nat Prod, 52:679-85, 1998. Plant metabolites. Structure and in vitro antiviral activity of quinovic acid glycosides from Uncaria tomentosa and Guettarda platypoda.
17. Phytomedicine, 8:275-82, 2001. DNA repair enhancement of aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa in a human volunteer study.
18. J Ethnopharmacol, 64:23-34, 1999. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.--ethnomedicinal use and new pharmacological, toxicological and botanical results.
19. J Pharm Pharmacol, 52:1553-61, 2000. Effects of Uncaria tomentosa total alkaloid and its components on experimental amnesia in mice: elucidation using the passive avoidance test.
20. J Altern Complement Med, 5:143-51, 1999. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) D.C.: cat's claw, una de gato, or saventaro.
21. USPTO No. 4,844,901: Oxindole alkaloids having properties stimulating the immunologic system and preparation containing the same. 1989.
22. USPTO No.4,940,725: Oxindole alkaloids having properties stimulating the immunologic system and preparation containing the same. 1990.
23. USPTO No. 5,302,611: Oxindole alkaloids having properties stimulating the immunologic system and preparation containing same. 1994.
24. USPTO No. 5,723,625: Process for the production of specific isomer mixtures from oxindole alkaloids. 1998.
25. Aliment Pharm Ther 12: 1279-1289, 1998. Anti-inflammatory actions of cat's claw: the role of NF-?B.
26. Free Radic Biol Med, 29:71-8, 2000.Cat's claw inhibits TNFalpha production and scavenges free radicals: role in cytoprotection.
27. Inflamm Res, 50:442-8, 2001. Efficacy and safety of freeze-dried cat's claw in osteoarthritis of the knee: mechanisms of action of the species Uncaria guianensis.
28. Phytomedicine, 9:325-37, 2002.Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis) are independent of their alkaloid content.
29. BMC Complement Altern Med, 1:11, 2001. Dietary antioxidants protect gut epithelial cells from oxidant-induced apoptosis

(Morinda Citrifolia) Noni

1. Acta Pharmacol Sin, 23(12):1127-41, 2002. Morinda citrifolia (Noni): a literature review and recent advances in Noni research.
2. J Nat Prod, 64:799-800, 2001. Iridoid glycosides from the leaves of Morinda citrifolia.
3. Cancer Lett, 73:161-6, 1993. Induction of normal phenotypes in ras-transformed cells by damnacanthal from Morinda citrifolia.
4. Proc West Pharmacol Soc, 37:145-6, 1994. Anticancer activity of Morinda citrifolia (noni) on intraperitoneally implanted Lewis lung carcinoma in syngeneic mice.
5. Proc West Pharmacol Soc, 39:7-9, 1996 Immunomodulation contributes to the anticancer activity of morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice.
6. Phytother Res, 13:380-7, 1999.An immunomodulatory polysaccharide-rich substance from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) with antitumour activity.
7. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 952:161-8, 2001. Cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni).
8. Cancer Res, 61:5749-56, 2001. Two novel glycosides from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (noni) inhibit AP-1 transactivation and cell transformation in the mouse epidermal JB6 cell line.
9. Org Lett, 3:1307-9, 2001. A new unusual iridoid with inhibition of activator protein-1 (AP-1) from the leaves of Morinda citrifolia L.
10. Angiogenesis, 6:143-9, 2003. .Inhibition of angiogenic initiation and disruption of newly established human vascular networks by juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni).
11. Phytother Res, 17:1158-64, 2003. Antitumour potential of a polysaccharide-rich substance from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on sarcoma 180 ascites tumour in mice.
12. Bioorg Med Chem, 11:2499-502, 2003. New unusual iridoids from the leaves of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) show inhibitory effect on ultraviolet B-induced transcriptional activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity.
13. Planta Med, 56:430-4, 1994.Analgesic and behavioral effects of Morinda citrifolia.
14. Acta Pharmacol Sin, 22:1084-8, 2001.Antistress effect of oligosaccharides extracted from Morinda officinalis in mice and rats.

Carotenoids: Lutien and Lycopene

1. Ann. Epidemiol, 5:255-260, 1995: A prospective study of consumption of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables and decreased cardiovascular mortality in the elderly.
2. J Nutr, 129:5-8, 1999. Beta-Carotene, carotenoids and the prevention of coronary heart disease
3. J Epidemiol, 12:357-66, 2002. Relationship between serum carotenoids and hyperglycemia: a population- based cross-sectional study
4. Am J Clin Nutr, 77:1434-41, 2003. Dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in relation to glucose metabolism in subjects at high risk of type 2 diabetes: the Botnia Dietary Study.
5. Harris RA, Key TJ, Silcocks PB, et al. A case-controlled study of dietary carotene in men with lung cancer and in men with other epithelial cancers. Nutrition and Cancer(1991)15:63-68.
6. Michaud DS, Feskanich D, Rimm EB, et al. Intake of specific carotenoids and risk of lung cancer in 2 prospective US cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr(2000)Oct;72(4):990-7.
7. Wald NJ, Thompson SG, Densem JW, et al. Serum beta-carotene and subsequent risk of cancer: results from the BUPA study.
British Journal of Cancer(1988)57:428-33.
8. Optometry, 71:147-64, 2000. Lutein improves visual function in some patients with retinal degeneration: a pilot study via the Internet.
9. Exp Eye Res, 74:371-81, 2002. Macular pigment and lutein supplementation in choroideremia.
10. Nutrition, 19:21-4, 2003. Lutein, but not alpha-tocopherol, supplementation improves visual function in patients with age-related cataracts: a 2-y double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.
11. Optometry, 75:216-30, 2004. Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial).
12. BJU Int. 92:375-8, 2003 .A comparison of lycopene and orchidectomy vs orchidectomy alone in the management of advanced prostate cancer.
13. Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 227:881-5. 2002. Effects of lycopene supplementation in patients with localized prostate cancer.
14. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 10:861-8, 2001.Phase II randomized clinical trial of lycopene supplementation before radical prostatectomy.
15. Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 227:894-9, 2002. Lycopene and the lung.
16. Nutr Cancer, 31:199-203, 1998.Bioavailability and in vivo antioxidant properties of lycopene from tomato products and their possible role in the prevention of cancer.
17. J Nutr, 125:1854-9, 1995.Skin lycopene is destroyed preferentially over beta-carotene during ultraviolet irradiation in humans.
18. J Nutr, 131:1449-51, 2001.Dietary tomato paste protects against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans.
19. Nutr Cancer, 36:163-9, 2000. Correlates of serum lycopene in older women.
20. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo), 47:213-21, 2001.Effects of tomato juice consumption on plasma and lipoprotein carotenoid concentrations and the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to oxidative modification.
21. Eur J Nut, 42:201-6, 2003. Protective activity of tomato products on in vivo markers of lipid oxidation.
22. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 20:2677-81, 2000.Low plasma lycopene concentration is associated with increased intima-media thickness of the carotid artery wall.
23. J Lab Clin Med, 134:592-8, 1999. Beta-carotene and lycopene, but not lutein, supplementation changes the plasma fatty acid profile of healthy male non-smokers.Allergy, 55:1184-9, 2000. Reduction of exercise-induced asthma oxidative stress by lycopene, a natural antioxidant.
24. Lipids, 33:981-4, 1998. Tomato lycopene and low density lipoprotein oxidation: a human dietary intervention study.
25. Int Urol Nephrol, 34:369-72, 2002.Lycopene therapy in idiopathic male infertility--a preliminary report.
26. Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 81:257-62. 2003. Effect of lycopene on pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth retardation in primigravidas.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

1. Am J Clin Nutr, 79:983-91, 2004. Increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids do not attenuate the effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin sensitivity or triacylglycerol reduction in Indian Asians.
2. Am J Clin Nutr, 79:765-73, 2004. Differential eicosapentaenoic acid elevations and altered cardiovascular disease risk factor responses after supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving hormone replacement therapy.
3. Am J Clin Nutr, 79:558-63, 2004 .LDL cholesterol-raising effect of low-dose docosahexaenoic acid in middle-aged men and women.
4. Metabolism, 53:153-8, 2004. An omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate increases plasma high-density lipoprotein 2 cholesterol and paraoxonase levels in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia.
5. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 112:1178-84, 2003. Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy modifies neonatal allergen-specific immune responses and clinical outcomes in infants at high risk of atopy: a randomized, controlled trial.
6. Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 73:357-68, 2003. Lipid responses in mildly hypertriglyceridemic men and women to consumption of docosahexaenoic acid-enriched eggs.
7. Nutrition, 19:837-42, 2003. Decreased oxidative stress in patients with ulcerative colitis supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids.
8. Cardiovasc Res, 59:955-62, 2003. The effects of dietary fatty acid supplementation on endothelial function and vascular tone in healthy subjects.
9. Intensive Care Med, 29:1472-81, 2003. Visual, cognitive, and language assessments at 39 months: a follow-up study of children fed formulas containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to 1 year of age. Omega-3 vs. omega-6 lipid emulsions exert differential influence on neutrophils in septic shock patients: impact on plasma fatty acids and lipid mediator generation.
10. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, 13:267-71, 2003. Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
11. Carcinogenesis, 24:919-25, 2003. .Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on UVR-related cancer risk in humans. An assessment of early genotoxic markers.
12. Lancet, 361:477-852003, .Association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with stability of atherosclerotic plaques: a randomized controlled trial.

Click here for a printer friendly version of this page.